Medicinal Animal Use ( Zootherapy ) amongst KhoeSan of
Namibia, South Africa and Botswana
Table 1

Mammals, birds, snakes, scorpion

Aardvark, Aardwolf, African Wild Cat, Baboon, Bat Eared Fox, Bird (Kori Bustard,≠ereb),
Caracal, Dassie, Duiker, Eland, Elephant, Gemsbok, Giraffe, Hare, Honey Badger, Hyena,
Jackal (Black Backed), Klipspringer (Klipbok), Kudu - cont. page 2
Part Used
Uses and Preparation

/huwus ?

(J101)Rub ground tooth into gum with a thorn. Prick gum
until the gum bleeds
(H4) Children’s diarrhoea (concoction?)
(Kh2123) Rub on for entire body pain
(N/D31) grind it with
porcupine dung for children


Anus (yellow
anal gland)


(N23, D25, 54)Mix with kidney of bat eared fox, ostrich
egg-shell for children’s medicine (D73) to stop wind of
(N39) sniff to vomit out ‘dirtiness’ (D25) in wallet for luck
(D18) sniff – any sickness, sometimes mixed with ostrich
(Kh2110) For fits ‘staep’ (Afrikaans), rub on neck or head
(Kh2111, 2114, 2115, 2116) with kidney of male bat eared
fox (make neck pouch (Kh2114) to protect the child against
dirt, (Kh2131) also child wears bag around waist for
teething pain
(Kh2117) mixed with
jackal’s liver, bat eared fox kidney
for baby powder
(Kh2111) bottom sores and STD’s
(J2141) use the smell, burn until soft, mix with sa (plants),
keeps a
lion away
(!Ko)cook, mix with children’s medicine to make them strong
ostrich egg-shell, kidney bat eared fox for children’
s medicine
(H2239) cook with dung to vomit out poison

(D21,12) smell the smoke: asthma, chest pain, headaches,
to ‘clean’ the placenta, to treat “lint worms” (?) in children;
(D34) flu
(D10) cook and drink for chest pain, (D29) diarrhoea (D34)
stomach pain
(D43) cook in water rub on painful legs
(N/D32) cook and drink or wash for whole body pain and
drink for stomach pain, ; grind and sniff for high blood
(N33) Soak legs in dung and warm water, drink for
(N42) not feeling well, eating well
(N9) rub on head sores of child
(J65) put on coals to stop police visiting
(J/N100) put on fire to bring luck
(J 101) cook and drink for chest problems, burn for
protection from spirits, grind and put on baby’s nose ‘so
winds do not make him sick’
(H52) put on coal for chest pain and to stop naked witch
people (H71, 2217) spirits and (H2221) bad winds at night
(H2229, H54, 68, 69) to stop bad dreams, help sleep,
(H2235) burn to stop
snakes (H56,61 )headaches (H59)
spirits and black shadow on your face (H60) smoke with
tobacco for chest pain (H72) grind and rub on legs for leg
pain, (H2220)smoke for chest pain
(H2239) cook with anus to vomit out poison
(H2210, 2246) Cook and drink for chest problems
(H2242) burn with kidneys of
bat eared fox, child inhales
smoke, for child sickness, protects from ‘people’s winds’
(H2210) with
ostrich egg-shell, kidney of bat eared fox, in
fire to help sleep, cook and drink for coughing (H2212) also
rub mixture into cuts
(H2209)drink concoction for excessive chest mucous, or
inhale smoke; plus kidney of
bat eared fox , burn and
inhale smoke for children’s sickness and to ‘protect from
bad winds’
(H2212) plus
bat eared fox kidney, plus ostrich egg-shell,
drink and rubbed in cuts for children
(H2247) cook and drink for vomiting and if ‘someone has
taken your footprint’ and your feet swell
(H2215) smoke with tobacco for pleasure, chest pain and
bad luck, put in shoes or pocket for luck and to keep naked
people away
(D13) drink, chew or rub on face – frightening animals run if
smeared on face
(N27) sniff powder for burning throat and chest feeling
(N39) Cook and drink for lungs
(Nh98) pound with
Ghee and Goreh plants, drink to vomit
stomach dirtiness
(Nh102) Cook and drink for flu and full body sickness

(Kh15) Rub body with it to sustain health and treat pain
African Wild
/hòˆȁ.b (KKG)

(Kh2135) mix with sa perfume bush in a tortoise shell – put
hairs in front of the nostrils of the “snore doctor” when they
want to reconvert him into a human

(H35) name for epilepsy “ /hôa-//ob” (wild cat sickness)

(D 29, N37) drink dung in water – adults and children’s
(H59) grind and pour into teeth with holes

(D / Herero 38) Uses with a mirror to “work with” the spirits
Bat eared fox
(//á`a.b KKG)
( ≠Kh  !koohab)

Bat eared fox

Bat eared fox
Anus (gland?)




(H2247) for bad winds, child wears on necklace

(Kh2110,7,8,9) dry, grind, mixed with
aardwolf anal gland
for children’s sickness (“staep”) (Kh111) use male fox
(Kh2114)  stops “tokolosies” bothering adults (Kh2120) and
babies (Kh2127) and jackals liver and ostrich egg-shell
(Kh2128)add black storm wood plant(Kh2130) jackal?
(Kh2133) plus
porcupine stomach, wear in neck pouch or
feed – for babies
(Kh2112) plus
ostrich egg-shell, drink if unwell
(D39)dried, ground with
ostrich egg-shell, children’s
sickness (D19) may add part of
hui xaris (big grey bird,
kudu horn; (D40) plus jackal liver, porcupine
/garas (stomach / intestine??), ostrich egg-shell, children’s
(N/D36) for children: plus jackal  liver, excrement of white
ostrich egg-shell, “clean stomach of child” follow
with marijuana if possible
(N/D31) for children’s sickness mix with red pepper,
(plant), hedgehog stomach, aardwolf anus - drink
(D (W-R59)) For headaches, tie onto hair with small piece
of string
(D22) plus aardwolf anal gland “to stop kids getting different
types of wind” – plus human urine as massage for baby
(D40) plus
jackal liver and porcupine stomach
(D43) rub into small cuts made on children
(D47) mix with fat and part of duba
lizard (monitor), rub on
throat and drink, for tonsils
(N23) children’s sickness, mixed with aardwolf anal gland,
ostrich egg-shell “Doepa”, “Duiwelsdrek” (commercial
medicines) – in neck pouch
(N25) children’s sickness, mix
ostrich egg-shell, oryx horn,
hyena dung “Nama powder”: massage, give powder then
wear black /ores thread
(N26) children’s sickness ostrich egg-shell, “Dueba”,
aardwolf anal gland, ground and mixed in teaspoon with
milk or gripewater, or Behoedmiddel (commercial)
(N33) dry, grind and pour in ear for child’s ear pain, plus
aardwolf anal gland for children
(Nh34) ‘silver fox’? hide in an opening of a house to chase
//gauwa (evil spirits)
(N35) plus
jackal liver, porcupine stomach, ostrich egg-
shell, for children, grind put on tongue
(N37) children’s sickness and for sores
(Nh23, Nh2195) tie high up in a tree to keep the //gauwas
(dead people) away
(Nh2192, Nh2204) hang them in a tree (don’t know why)
(Nh96) dries, pounds, rubs on body to keep “
hyena people”
away while sleeping
(!K63) drink for cough or chest problems
(!K99)grind, put in mouth, rub on anterior fontanel, down
spine to coccyx to stop wind “taking” small children
(witchdoctor thing and San thing)
(H50) dry, grind, eat if exhausted
(H2240) dry and rub on for pain, grind, wear and rub for
children, drink for vomiting (H2241) rub in abdominal cuts
for child sickness and ‘bad winds’
(H52,59, 72) dry and swallow as poison emetic (H56) also
put on roof (to stop spirits?)
(H66) plus anus hair, children wear it, “a perfume, just for
(H2247) as emetic
(H74) plus
!hui //hams stomach (large grey bird), for
(H2208, H2215) plus ostrich egg-shell for children’s
sickness (H2212, H2220)
ostrich egg-shell plus aardwolf
anal gland, drink and rub into cuts
(H2235) plus
aardwolf anal gland, cook and drink for
stomach and body
(H2210) unspecified (children’s sickness?)
(H2211, H2214, H2221)children’s necklace, drink, for “bad
(J101) dry, pound put on a baby’s nose to protect from
winds, put in fire to chase bad things from the house
(J2143) mix with sa (plant) keep dead people away
(Nh102) cook and drink for headaches and all over body

(D25) plus
jackal liver, ostrich egg-shell, sugar, for
children’s sickness

(H66) smoke in pipe or cook and drink for cough

(H62) it is a “defender”/ “ancestor”, //Gâuas
Kori Bustard
!huib (!ui )
( !guib)
(!hui //hom)
(hui xaris)


(D42) for children’s sickness (D18) mix with !hutubi insect,
in water as drink or eat, or cut and rub in, for children’s
(D19) children’s sickness
(D72) mix into children’s medicine with garlic,
kudu horn,
ostrich egg-shell
(D2249) mix stomach contents with the Acacia
beetle and
gum (acacia?)
(H2211) for child chest problems, put in water and drink
(H2214) unspecified
(H2215) mix with
ostrich egg-shell !gutubis [ !hutubis ]
insect, kidney of the jackal for children’s medicine
(H2216) grind, sow into a cloth for children to wear around
the neck for sickness protection
(Kori bustard?)
Kai /anis (big

Tie thread to


(D46) tie a baby bird’s leg into its nest, the mother bird
loosens the thread with a stick so the bird can fly,
witchdoctors take the stick

(D73) mix with
ostrich egg-shell, aardwolf dung, rub the
body of the child for sickness (wind
≠oab) protection
≠ereb (“very
small”, Prinia


Whole body


(D/He 47) roast, put in mouth, blow into mouth of child with

(J2159) if a child cries too much, cook the bird, wash the
child with the soup

(Kh2111) ‘
Koursful’ bird flying over gives you a
temperature, makes you sick
blue falk (?) whose leg shakes causes sickness
(D (W-R65) birds will build a nest from your cut hair, it will
make you mad
(D (Schatz) if children play with live birds they will become
(H54, 56)
//goris (//gores, gori anis) bird shadow !gou (!goo)
the baby, makes it sick (H60) passes through mother’s milk
to anterior fontanel (H57) //gores child coughs like the noise
of the bird, take sweat and rub it on the head of the child
(H59) also !nanas bird, common children’s illness cause. If
you go under the nest it will make you sick.
(H72) cannot eat, child coughs with noise of bird ≠naubeb
(Korhaan (gen.)Eupodotis)
(H222) “
Ocker baster?”, red tailed bird, //go-ās, makes
children sick by its shadow. If anterior fontanel goes in put
soil on the child’s head(Ju86) rub mothers milk and white
ash on anterior fontanel to protect from passing birds
Subbah (Tsaba? any bird?) sometimes add plant Subbah !
(bird plant) and fumigate child
Tsaba /kae name of sickness causing bird (eagle?)
Treat with plant
Tsama !hai
(J2154) //gam bird shadow sickness ( mid size, big wings,
moving feet, black, feathers go in and cause sickness in
baby) (Ju2171) /na /num sickness, baby can’t see, anterior
fontanel stops moving
(J2165) big
bird shouts over baby and puts its body into
baby – fingers spasm like bird feet
(J2176) when the
Kori bustard flies and he picks his wings
up and lowers them a little while then you know it is going to
(J2177, J2186) child sickness ,
//gauwa hah bird, feathers
into skin of child
(J2181) rub breast milk and ash on anterior fontanel of child
made sick by bird shadow
/gou bird; the shadow takes the child’s heart
(Nh102) child makes Kah bird sound, takes the child’s heart
(Nh2187) use
tsaree “Birdwood”, rub on child and feathers
come out of the body
(Nh2191) bird covers the child with its shadow ( “ /
/gai = to
sit on
!aba to climb on, khaba something that gets into you
and is still angry and gets in your heart
!Gau bird flies over and makes people sick
(Nh2202) if you eat the
Kori bustard you will never sit down
( Rooikat)
(Kh2119) dry and powder the liver, put in mouth of babies
(children’s medicine) (N 27( just mentioned))

(D43) makes cuts in glabella, rub in for eye problems

(Nh2195) parts used by someone wanting to do evil against
you – “black people”
(Nh2197) dry, mix with herbs for body pains, killing it also
stops the rain  –old people (H2229) killing it stops the rain
Dassie (Hyrax)
Rock Dassie?
* might
overlap with
(D7) put on sucking cuts so the blood “moves down”
(D20) “cleans the blood” for back pain, after miscarriages to
aid pregnancy
(D18) cook drink for post-birth pain (D19) plus kidney pain
and back pain (D21) “cleans” placenta (N/D28, 36) drink to
help birth (D40) drink after giving birth if uterus not moving
down or not bleeding well (N/D32) uterus problems, “cleans
uterus”, stops pain, urine not flowing ( !áˆù /garu “ dassie
scatterings”? )
(D25) cook and drink for bladder pain, pain in arteries, for
“Men bitten by women” (coitus during menstruation)
(D29) grind, put in tea or coffee for high blood pressure
(N23) menstruation pain, uterus and back pain
(N24, 33) “cleans” uterus
(N34) drink for stomach pain
(N27) drink for yellow eyes and not feeling well
(H2240) help bleeding after giving birth

(!K58) wash body with the fat and ≠khoe plant to attract a

(!K76) a spirit defender
//Gauwa sometimes changes into him (the animal
just disappears, even if shot)
(Nh2204) people change into him




Chest bone


Leg flesh






Uterine water

(H2219) grind for coughing and “bad winds”

(H72) eat for a person coughing, also rub skin into cuts on
chest and the cervico-dorsal junction

(J2141, J2143) rub into cuts made onto bicep and shoulder
blade to make a young boy a good hunter

(Kh2128) mix dewlap skin with fat, rub children that come to
visit whose “sweat is weaker”
(J2167) the
n/um k’ao can massage with fat
(J2181) mixed with
ostrich egg-shell to rub on anterior
fontanel of children (long time ago – now Vaseline or sour
(Nh2188) apply to children to make spine and neck tough
(Nh2207) apply for back pain and waist pain, also mix with
ostrich egg-shell and rub on child’s chest for flu
(!K58)  (coughing?)
(!K99) use fat from top of eland kidney in healer’s
(H64) rub fat into chest cuts, protects from coughing arising
from young person stealing and eating the animal when
grandfather is hunting

(H60), scrape and rub into cuts on chest for incessant
coughing (H2230) sniff and smoke for heart problems
(H66) rub into cuts for protection from coughing
(H2231) mix with
eland meat and fat from under heart,
burn, rub into cuts for child’s incessant coughing
(H2233) rub into cuts on children as protection from bad
winds, (H2234) protection from “smell” of
eland and eating
chest fat
(!K/D61) burn, peel, grind rub into cuts, wear as necklace
/hai//aib (hai!nadom) - coughing when nothing comes out

(H2241) children wear it for bad winds
(H60) use for sucking where pain is
(J2172) mix with a plant. One healer also uses it on another

(!K58) if arguing, eating
eland and kudu together makes
you cough; if coughing an old man rubs eland meat on your
(N33) healthy animal, dry skin on roof, rub into cuts in child

(D18) grind in fire, give as a drink; (D31)make a chord with
a threaded dog ear for children to wear (shoulder to
adjacent underarm) if very sick
(N37) children wear thread to make them strong / protection
(D39) rub into cuts on children for strength / protection
(D43) the wind smell makes you sick if an “
eland cut”
person passes behind you
(Kh2128) throat (dewlap), make necklace for a child with a
weak chest
//hō-dommi (throat skin), also grind dewlap skin
(H/N2214, H50)
eland skin necklace for wind protection,
(H2208) fumigate in smoke of burnt
eland skin or rub on
anterior fontanel, protects from strong smell / wind
(H2212, HSchatz) children wear skin so they can safely eat
eland meat (H53) if not they get incessant bloody diarrhoea
(H68) children wear skin necklace so other children do not !
gau him
(H56) children wear for chest pain and coughing
(H54,H55,H2219, H2216, H2239) rub into cuts on chest to
protect children from strong winds or to treat excessive
coughing (H2240) excessive child’s cough called
sickness ,!khan-/aeb
(!K58) cut marks and rub ground skin in for coughing
(Nh98) wear skin to protect children, or thread if no
(Nh97) children wear eland skin (“given by parents to kill
other children, like Devil’s Claw”)

(Kh2111) drink if thirsty

(D5, N/D31) a child with cuts with
eland rubbed in can make
other children without the cuts sick – the “wind” ( ≠oab)
goes into them from the strong child
(D46) first people used the
eland, but it made people sick
so then they used the skin of the
(N/D36) animal doesn’t get sick, old time children wore skin
reim, it made them ≠khaisa (lit.wake up) – grow up strong
(N34, H2210) children die if playing with those with
cuts, don’t use anymore
(Kh2110, Kh2118, Kh2122) he cries when he is shot
(Khwe dam 2139) only elderly can eat chest or your feet
(J2142) if another is cooking it you cannot help yourself to
the pot or you become sick
(J2146) throwing cooked
eland at someone makes them
(J2154) if young women eats chest of eland it prevents
production of baby milk
(J2167) fat next to the heart makes people (especially
children) cough (because first meat to hit ground when the
animal lies down) (J2172) chest fat is
n/um, not for the
(J2184) children should not eat the marrow
(J2176) guard your
eland meat, keep your weapons near
(J2177) use the smell of the
eland to heal, the n/um k’ao
brings in the smell to heal
(J80) god lets you ride an
eland or oryx when in “trance”
(H68) cook, take the soup rub on stomach and bottom of
children so they can eat eland;
snake in eland forehead
hair; eland looks to sunrise at death
(H60) mix meat with
//hubu plant, rub in cuts between
eyebrows to make a successful hunter
soxa if pregnant or breast feeding
(H2231) a
soxa animal with a snake that lives in the
forehead hair; if people without
eland in cuts eat it they
cough non-stop
(H2232) young people cannot eat the legs and arms of the
(H2238) an elder must cook and eat  
eland before the
//Gamab sends an eland with a rope up to him
(!K) cut marks and rub in chest fat so women can eat lower
back meat
(Nh96) dance with the
(K2111, K2112) an eland cries like your wife when you hit


(D7) wash with boiled dung water for swollen legs, also
place warm dung on them
(D12) boil and heat legs with the dung
(D15) wash body if hand or leg is swelling
(D16) for whole body sickness or a pain, inhale smoke of
dung and mopane tree leaves and /hûnis (shepherds tree)
(D21) in water as a wash for leg pain
(D22, D25) just heard
(N23) soak swollen legs and feet in warm water
(N37) in children’s medicine
(N42) wash whole body or wash legs and feet if painful
(!K58) put on fire, sniff smoke for malaria headaches
(!K99) boil and wash for painful legs
(!K/D61) for swelling, wash whole body; if collapse put on
fire and breathe smoke
(J2143) smoke so dead people don’t return to make them
(J2159) burn in hut to help sleeping
(J2167) put in warm water and wash yourself if dreaming too
much – the dung must have urine on top
(J2173) – for excessive dreaming (J2171) tried for dead
people disturbance – no good
(J2176) dung? – ‘to deal evil’, also
hyena – all local tribes
use them
(J2186) burn it to drive elephants away
(Nh2199) use to kill others – a black people thing
(Nh2207) boil and drink if whole body weak or use as body
(Nh97) put on fire, inhale smoke for unspecified sickness
(H59) sore, swollen feet, warm them with dung; cook and
wash whole body not feeling well, also chicken pox (don’t
dry yourself with a towel)
(H68) not feeling well, put on coals in house, let smoke
(H2210, H2213, H2234) for swollen legs
(H2216) coal on dung, sniff smoke for bleeding nose
(H2222) mix warm water, salt, dung and wash for leg pain.
Cook and drink or sniff burning dung smoke for children’s
bird sickness (like epilepsy, from shadow of bird)
(H/D2223) for swollen feet (H2238) in warm water, better to
rub on in the veld, body wash if not feeling well
(H65,H69,H57,H71,H72,H2228) leg pain(H54,H2240) wash
in warm water (H52) put on coals in the house to stop
‘machite’ people (‘witchcraft’)
(H2233) stomach pain
(H2239) not feeling well, warm water wash, put in tin with
coal and sniff smoke

(H2234) just heard
Gemsbok /
/hâub ?)



Belief / ritual /
(N24) ‘Nama powder’ for children. Make cuts and rub in
ostrich egg-shell, gemsbok horn, kidney of the bat eared
, hyena dung and klipspringer /hâub ( fat?)
(N/D31) unspecified medical use

(D7) use the horn for sucking blood
(N/D31) for children’s medicine

kudu and oryx those are the animals who do not get
the sicknesses, they are the healthy animal that is why the
elder people use the
oryx and kudu as a medicine. Rub
the skin into ‘medicinal cuts’ in the neck and between the
breasts to prevent children’s sickness
(N 37) children’s wear a thread to protect them from other
‘potent’ children. Weaker than the
eland thread

(D2249) traditional ‘praise’ used when eating: ‘the west wind
falling on top of the bushy
oryx, whose back fat is eaten by
(D46) skin blankets along with a wooden tray for separating
seeds ( ≠aub) given by an intended husband to his
prospective bride’s parents (?)
(Ju80) when you get into ‘trance’ the god lets you ride it; it is
an eland or an
(Ju85) [ when dancing ] you can climb on any animal,
giraffe, oryx, also on a string you can walk on
(Ju79) kill, cook, wash in the soup of the meat only eaten by
the old people (chest and flanks
//gaua  ( pron.long au),
light a fire and sing and dance
oryx songs
(D42) old time they dug pit traps with
oryx horns and
placed them upright at the bottom
(H55) the
oryx is soxa. If you kill him he changes. You see
the horns are straight up and when he is shot he changes
into another animal and he lies down
(H60) young people cannot eat
oryx and adults can’t eat
the liver, heart and intestines

(J2181) for a child afflicted with a bird’s shadow, the
Basarwa used to rub
ostrich egg-shell mixed with giraffe
or eland fat on the anterior fontanel. Now use Vaseline or
milk fat
(Nh2207) for child flu, mix fat, or eland fat, with roasted,
ostrich egg-shell and rub on chest of child

(Nh96) healing songs
(J79) take meat from the lower left abdomen and above the
ribs on both sides, eat it, wash in the “soup”, make a fire
and dance singing
giraffe songs. That meat [ from those
areas, the chest and flanks ] is
//gaua (long au)


(Kh 2111) for pain in the ears
(Kh2130) mixed with the blood of the
tortoise for ear pain

(Kh2115) the animal used for the ‘poison business’, people
use it for children

(H, Schatz) women may not eat the
(Kh2114) women cannot eat it because it is the only animal
that menstruates
(Nh102) some animals can make you sick. You do not know
them. That is why the wind or smell can make you sick. I
nearly died when I ate the spring
(Ju2186) ‘healing dance’ song
(Nh2191) lives on the moon, you can see him pulling
something like a branch
(Nh2196) people say there is a hare on the moon but when
I look well it is a person pulling a tree branch
(Nh2201) the old people used to say there is a
hare on the
moon because you can see its ears
(Nh2200) a child should not eat !ghaiee (?), steenbok,
springhare, hartebeest. If the parents eat the head of the
hartebeest the children will have ear problems
Anal gland

(!Ko2175) burn the anal gland. The smell keeps snakes
(Nh2198) to treat a
snake bite. Rub it into medicinal cuts on
a person

(Nh2204) it is
tsso [ potent / potency]. Dry it, grind it, put
into medicinal cuts. It is medicinal. Some people use the
hyena’s bottom
(Nh2206) an animal used for
Anal gland
(Nh2204) unspecified
(Nh2198) some use it to bring good luck. It is a black
people's thing

Black backed

Kidney and



(D20) pound with horse hoof, ostrich egg-shell, aardwolf
anal gland, sugar, for children’s sickness
ostrich egg-shell, bat eared fox stomach, sugar,
“poo poo” out dirtiness for children

(D40) plus
porcupine stomach, kidney of bat eared fox,

(N23) plus
ostrich egg-shell, stomach of porcupine,
sugar, for children, called “Hottentot Medicine”
(N20) child medicine
(N33) liver, garlic, /goa plant,
ostrich egg-shell, Bolmeister
(commercial), sugar for children up to 6 months
bat eared fox kidney, porcupine stomach, ostrich
(N37) liver for kids sickness

(Kh2120) and kidneys of
bat eared fox, anal gland
aardwolf for babies with staep and tokolosies bothering
(Kh2128) mixed with fat for massage
(!Ko2175) roast kidney to take out the blood, dry in sun, mix
into children's medicine, kidney is the strongest, it makes
the child vomit

(N/D 28, D43)
/giri haib jackal plant for stomach pain, cook,
drink or chew
ostrich egg-shell, burn and grind, sugar, jackals
Fat (/hâub? )

(N24) ‘Nama powder’ for children. Make cuts and rub in
ostrich egg-shell,
gemsbok horn, kidney of the bat eared
hyena dung and klipspringer fat

(N27) burn it, grind and sniff the powder for fainting and
blacking out








(H53) from top of kidney as part of a sickness medicine in a
container used by old people
(H2208) kidney fat mixed in a tin with teeth of
take tin into bush to treat snakebite
(J101) rub on people to help pain, then cook and drink
koreb plant

(H2216) burn, grind hoof, rub into cuts made on chest (for
(H2217) or skin? For too much coughing rub into cuts in the
(H2234) if
eland hoof no good use kudu, scrub it, grind,
drink in warm water for children’s sicknesses

(D17) put in fire and sniff for sicknesses
(D19) children’s sickness
/gôaron //os ( “ meningitis ” ), with
ostrich egg-shell,
//huribe //kha plant, garlic,; burn, grind,
mix; for hyperventilating children also use burnt ground horn
(D21) put on fire, grind or wear a piece as a necklace. Both
for kids to prevent sickness eg tooth diarrhoea
(D/N31) horn and skin
(H52) top of horn and
!huxuris (beetle) for child’s soft
anterior fontanel and chest depression
(H54) put ground skin in cuts on chest of child for
prevention and protection
(H55) children wear on necklace
(H68) children wear horn on necklace for protection from
other children, or use skin and horn mixed, burnt, ground,
(H2215) children wear the tip of the horn for sickness
(H2228) seen people use top of horn but does not know why
(H2241) children wear it for ‘ bad wind ’
(!K/D61)cut, roast, grind, mix with Vaseline, rub child’s body,
also wear as necklace for children coughing and protection
from other children’s wind
(J2159) to suck out
snake poison

(!K58) if you argue and eat
kudu and eland meat together
you get a cough. To treat an old man must take the meat
and rub it on the chest of each person – also rub the skin
into a forehead cut between eyebrows to “bring home the
(!K/D61) cut, blacken in fire, grind, mix with Vaseline, rub on
newborn to make them fat and remove wrinkles
(J2141, J2145) hunting, for a small boy to make him a good
hunter take arm meat, soften on fire, rub into small cuts on
proximal and distal bicep and shoulder blade

(D1) and ostrich egg-shell, put in fire, grind, rub into small
cuts for ≠gurub, ‘leg pain’
(D3) plus ostrich egg-shell, rubbed into cuts for //aûtas; for
mothers not producing milk, make small cut on each breast
put in ground skin and dai /gameb (milk plant)
(D4) kid’s sickness, sternum protrudes, vomiting and
diarrhoea, make small cuts on chest, add ostrich egg-shell
– stay 3 days in the house, don’t touch red meat, black
cooking pot and water
(D5) plus ostrich egg-shell, brown in fire for kid’s sickness
put in cuts over D4 vertebra, top central sacrum, below
umbilicus, plus massage and confinement in house; for
heart  plus ostrich egg-shell in cuts, plus wear a neck
pouch, !ores, containing !hutubis insect and part of top of
goat heart – wear until drops off
(D7) if food not good ( to clear out dirtiness ) plus ostrich
egg-shell, in fire, grind put in water and drink and massage
(D14) for children with stuib (chest pain), wear thread of skin
(D15) for  //âutas, slaughter a goat, wrap person in skin,
massage, make cuts on chest, over C7 vertebra, low back,
rub in kudu skin and ostrich egg-shell
(D16) mix with ostrich egg-shell and sniff for a cold
(D18)  put in fire, grind give as a drink, make cuts and rub
in; also make a reim, a //hobe, tie it around a child over one
shoulder to under the other arm, for children’s sickness
(D39) make cuts put in skin from head of kudu
(D47) wear skin thread around child’s shoulder, male kudu
for boys, female for girls
(N9) plus ostrich egg-shell and black stinky beetle,
gamabes ( beetle) for stuib ( chest pain )rub in cuts anterior
and posterior rib 4/5 space, or makes the marks where the
pain is; plus ostrich egg-shell, for children to drink if they
have diarrhoea
(N26) for children’s sickness (/gôaron os)
(N33) rub into cuts on children for sickness protection
(N/D36) children wear a skin thread on shoulder to “ wake
up ”, be strong
(N37) children wear a thread to be strong
(H50) use skin from forehead, rub into cuts made on a child
to protect them from other “strong” children, some cuts in
lower back; also make a necklace with  a piece of horn to
protect children
(H53) wear as necklace then they can safely eat kudu meat
(H2208) children wear thread of kudu skin, stronger than
the eland, to protect them from eland wind

(J2185) seeing a kudu means you will be lucky
(Nh2194) healers cannot eat just any bit, not the //gabbeh
only the soft meat, no sinew “or our tsso will not work”
(H2208) good luck to dream of ( unlike lion and rhino)
(H2209) good to dream of
(H2210) he is /geiai man ( healer) if he dreams of a kudu it
is good, he can ride the kudu
(H/Na) heard a man could run and change into a kudu, not
sure if it is just gossip
(H2215) the xaib is a soxa animal, if you kill it don’t argue or
you will get stomach pain; if breast feeding you cannot eat
kudu or child will die unless you wear tip of horn around
your neck
(H2244) Bees, kudu and oryx if people dream of these they
go to try and find them – a lucky dream

D = Damara                          Nos. 1-108 recorded 2001
N = Nama                             Nos. 2109 - 2248 recorded  2006-2008
H = Hai//om
J = Ju/'hoansi
Khwe dam = Khwe dam
!K = !Kung (!Xun)
!Ko = !Ko (!Xo)
≠Kh = ≠Khomani
Nh = Nharo

(H Schatz) = record supplemented by work of Ilsa Schatz, pers.
com, 2001
KKG = W.H.I. Haacke and E. Eiseb,
A KhoekhoeGowab
Dictionary (Gamsberg Macmillan, Windhoek, 2002)

For the context  of this list see  Notes
Table 1. continued
Table 2 Domestic Animals
Table 1 continued
© 2009 Chris Hewson Low, All Rights Reserved